"Protocols of Zion" redirects here. For the film, see Protocols of Zion (film).The Protocols of the Elders of Zion Cover of first book edition, The Great within the Minuscule and AntichristAuthorPossibly Pyotr Rachkovsky; the author plagiarised from Hermann Goedsche and Maurice Joly, plagiarized in turn from Eugène SueOriginal titleПрограма завоевания мира евреями (Programa zavoevaniya mira evreyami, "The Jewish Programme to Conquer the World")CountryRussian EmpireLanguageRussian, with plagiarism from German and French textsSubjectAntisemitic conspiracy theoryGenrePropagandaPublisherZnamyaPublication dateAugust–September 1903Published in English1919Media typeFraudulent political treatisePages417 (1905 edition) A reproduction of the 1905 Russian edition by Serge Nilus, appearing in Praemonitus Praemunitus (1920).Part of a series onAnti-Semitism Part of Jewish history[show]
Adolf Hitler and the Nazis publicized the text as though it were a valid document, although it had already been exposed as fraudulent. After the Nazi Party came to power in 1933, it ordered the text to be studied in German classrooms. The historian Norman Cohn suggested that Hitler used the Protocols as his primary justification for initiating the Holocaust—his "warrant for genocide".
The Protocols purports to document the minutes of a late 19th-century meeting of Jewish leaders discussing their goal of global Jewish hegemony by subverting the morals of Gentiles, and by controlling the press and the world's economies. It is still widely available today and even now sometimes presented as a genuine document, whether on the Internet or in print in numerous languages.